[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: About :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit ::
:: Volume 26, Issue 1 (1-2014) ::
J Islam Dent Assoc Iran 2014, 26(1): 39-45 Back to browse issues page
Comparison of Salivary Cotinine Concentration in Cigarette Smokers, Water Pipe Smokers and Non–Smokers
Maryam Rabiei 1, Morteza Rahbar Taramsar2, Mehrdad Sadegh Kanjani3, Ehsan Kazemnezhad Leyli4, Hosain Masoudi Rad5, Mohammad Jafari Farshami6
1- Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran , rabiei@gums.ac.ir
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Legal Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran
3- PHD Reference laboratory, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran
4- Assistant Professor, Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran
5- Assistant Professor, Department of Endodontics, School of Dentistry, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Guilan, Iran
6- Dentist
Abstract:   (4909 Views)

  Background and Aim : Water pipe smoking has become a public health hazard. The aim of this study was to measure and compare the concentration of salivary cotinine in cigarette smokers, water pipe smokers and nonsmokers .

  Materials and Methods : Forty-eight volunteers (16 cigarette smokers, 16 water pipe smokers and 16 nonsmokers) participated in this cross-sectional study. High sensitivity Salivary Cotinine Quantitative enzyme immunoassay kit was used to measure the salivary cotinine concentration. Non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and linear regression were used to determine the correlation between number of cigarettes smoked and concentration of cotinine .

  Results : The mean concentration of salivary cotinine was 223.74(±181.56) ng/ml (the highest) in cigarette smokers, 106.24 (±135.23) ng/ml in water pipe smokers and 0.73(±1.24) ng/ml in nonsmokers. The difference in this respect among the 3 groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). In smokers, the level of salivary cotinine increased by 1.84 ng/ml per each time of cigarette smoking per week. This increase was 14.57 ng/ml per each time of water pipe consumption per week .

  Conclusion : The mean concentration of salivary cotinine was significantly higher among cigarette smokers compared to water pipe smokers and nonsmokers. However, one time consumption of water pipe caused a greater rise in salivary cotinine level compared to cigarette smoking .

Keywords: Cotinine, Saliva, Smoking, Tobacco
Full-Text [PDF 207 kb]   (1863 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Orginal | Subject: Oral Medicine
References
1. Wong, C. 2002. The history of the hubble-bubble. The Daily Northwestern No-vember 23:1.
2. Shafagoj Y, Mohammed F, Hadidi K. Hubblie bubble (Water pipe) smoking: Levels of nico-tine and cotinine in plasma, saliva and urine. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Jun; 40(6):249-55.
3. Rastam S, Ward KD, Eissenberg T, Maziak W. Estimating the beginning of the waterpipe epidemic in Syria. BMC Public Health. 2004 Aug 4;4:32.
4. Mary P, Martinasek, Ches, Robert J. McDermott, Faahb, and Leila Martini. Water-pipe (Hookah) tobacco smoking among youth. Curr Probl Pediat Adolesc Health Care. 2011 Feb;41 (2):34-57.
5. Aghamolaei T, Zare S. Cigarette and Hookah using pattern in over-15 population of Bandar-Abbas, a population base study. Bim J Hormozgan Univ of Med Sci. 2008 Winter; 11(4): 241-6.
6. Al Mutairi SS, Shihab-Eldeen AA, Mojiminiyi OA, Anwar AA. Comparative analysis of the effects of hubble-bubble (Sheesha) and ciga-rette smoking on respiratory and metabolic pa-rameters in hubble-bubble and cigarette smok-ers. Respirology 2006 Jul;11(4):449-55.
7. Eissenberg T, Ward KD, Smith-Simone S, Maziak W. Waterpipe tobacco smoking on a U.S. college campus: Prevalence and correlates. J Adolesc Health. 2008 May; 42(5):526-9.
8. Lee CK, Brown BG, Rice Jr WY, Doolittle DJ. Role of oxygen free radicals in the induction of sister chomatid exchanges by cigarette smoke. Env Mol Mutagen. 1989 Jan; 13(1):54-9.
9. Akl EA, Gaddam S, Gunukula SK, Honeine R, Jaoude PA, Irani J. The effects of waterpipe tobacco smoking on health outcomes: a system-atic review. Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Jun; 39(3):834-57.
10. David J. Triggle. Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC; 1996.
11. Benowitz NL. Biomarkers of environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Env Health Perspect. 1999 May; 107 Suppl 2:349-55.
12. Rose JE, Levin ED, Benowitz N. Saliva nicotine as an index of plasma levels in nicotine skin patch users. Ther Drug Monit. 1993 Oct; 15 (5): 431-5.
13. Jarvis MJ, Primatesta P, Erens B, Feyerabend C, Bryant A. Measuring nicotine intake in population surveys: Comparability of saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine estimates. Nicotine Tob Res. 2003 Jun; 5(3):349-55.
14. Jarvis MJ, Russell MA, Benowitz NL, Feyerabend C. Elimination of cotinine from body fluids: implications for noninvasive measurement of tobacco smoke exposure. Am J Public Health. 1988 Jun; 78(6):696-8.
15. Teeuwen HW, Aalders RJ, Van Rossum JM. Simultaneous estimation of nicotine and co-tinine levels in biological fluids using high-resolution capillary-column gas chromatography combined with solid phase extraction work-up. Mol Biol Rep. 1988-1989; 13(3):165-75.
16. Bacha ZA, Salameh P, Waked M. Saliva cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide levels in natural environment waterpipe smokers. Inhal Toxicol. 2007 Jul; 19(9):771-7.
17. Behera D, Uppal R, Majumdar S. Urinary levels of nicotine and cotinine in tobacco users. Indian J Med Res. 2003 Sep; 118:129-33.
18. Jaakkola MS, Ma J, Yang G, Chin MF, Benowitz NL, Ceraso M, Samet JM. Determi-nants of salivary cotinine concentrations in Chinese male smokers. Prev Med. 2003 Mar; 36(3):282-90.
19. Monn Ch, Kindler P, Meile A, Brändli O. Ultrafine particle emissions from waterpipes. Tob Control. 2007 Dec; 16(6):390-3.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA


XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Rabiei M, Rahbar Taramsar M, Sadegh Kanjani M, Kazemnezhad Leyli E, Masoudi Rad H, Jafari Farshami M. Comparison of Salivary Cotinine Concentration in Cigarette Smokers, Water Pipe Smokers and Non–Smokers. J Islam Dent Assoc Iran. 2014; 26 (1) :39-45
URL: http://jidai.ir/article-1-1555-en.html


Volume 26, Issue 1 (1-2014) Back to browse issues page
Journal of Islamic Dental Association of Iran

AWT IMAGE

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License which allows users to read, copy, distribute and make derivative works for non-commercial purposes from the material, as long as the author of the original work is cited properly

Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 32 queries by YEKTAWEB 3925