Prevalence and Pattern of Styloid Process Elongation and Calcification on Digital Panoramic Radiographs in an Iranian Population
Sh. Sakhdari 1, S. Saberi 2, A.R. Shamshiri 3.
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Craniomaxillofacial Research Center, Islamic Azad University, Dental Branch, Tehran, Iran 2 Dentist, Laser Research Center of Dentistry, Dentistry Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 3 Research Center for Caries Prevention, Dental Research Institute, Department of Community Oral Health, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background and Aim: Considering the importance of the clinical significance of the elongated styloid process, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and pattern of calcification and elongation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs of an Iranian population.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs of patients over 18 years old with visible styloid processes. The length of styloid processes was measured by software, and the length>30mm was considered as elongated. Prevalence and pattern of elongation and calcification were determined according to the classification proposed by Langlais. The associations of age, sex, and the jaw side of elongation was determined using generalized estimating equations with exchangeable matrix and binary logistic model.
Results: Elongation of styloid process was observed in 177 (17.7%) of 1000 evaluated processes were elongated. The Type I pattern of elongation (n=80, 45%) and type A pattern of calcification (n=69, 39%) had the highest frequency. Although the prevalence of elongation seemed to be higher in males, the difference was not significant (P=0.11). No significant association was observed between the side of jaw and elongation (P=0.54). Elongation was more common in the 40-59-year-old group compared to <40-year-old group (P=0.014).
Conclusion: The prevalence of elongated styloid process often considered as an anatomical variation and has been reported differently in the literature. Dentists should pay more attention to it during clinical examination especially in the case of pain in head and neck.