:: Volume 31, Issue 3 (7-2019) ::
J Islam Dent Assoc Iran 2019, 31(3): 154-161 Back to browse issues page
In Vitro Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Powder and Pumice Flour for Removal of Iron Induced Pigmentations
Sedighe Mozafar1, Rahil Ahmadi1, Somayeh Kameli *2, Samin Khodakarami3
1- Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School, Shahed University. Tehran, Iran
2- Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School, Shahed University. Tehran, Iran , so.kameli@yahoo.com
3- Dentist, Private Office, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (565 Views)
Background and Aim: Management of iron-induced tooth pigmentation is challenging. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate powder and pumice flour for removal of iron-induced pigmentation from primary ante-rior teeth.
Materials and Methods: In this in vitro, experimental study, 60 sound primary anterior teeth were collected. After cutting the roots and sealing the pulp chamber with composite resin, all teeth were coated with acid gel for 30 s and then immersed in 250 cc of ferrous sulfate iron drop for 48 h to induce iron discoloration. Afterwards, the teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups (n=30). In group A, discolored teeth were cleaned with pumice/water slurry. Samples in group B were cleaned similarly for 30 s using sodium bicarbonate/water slurry. The shade of all teeth was evaluated at baseline, after inducing iron staining and following stain removal using Vita Easy Shade spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, t-test and ANCOVA. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: All teeth showed color improvement following the cleaning procedures. However, teeth in pumice group showed a significantly greater mean ΔE2 value com-pared with sodium bicarbonate, representing more efficient stain removal (P=0.926 for L, P=0.162 for a*, P=0.980 for b*).
Conclusion: Both sodium bicarbonate and pumice were effective for tooth stain re-moval, although pumice powder showed significantly higher efficacy.
Keywords: Tooth Discoloration, Iron, Sodium Bicarbonate, Pumice
Full-Text [PDF 602 kb]   (120 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Orginal | Subject: Pediatric Dentistry
References
1. Murray-Kolb LE, Beard JL. Iron deficiency and child and maternal health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jan;89(3):946S-950S.
2. De-Regil LM, Jefferds ME, Sylvetsky AC, Dowswell T. intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Dec 7;(12):CD009085.
3. Pani SC, Alenazi FM, Alotain AM, Alanazi HD, Alasmari AS. Extrinsic tooth staining potential of high dose and sustained release iron syrups on primary teeth. BMC Oral Health. 2015 Aug 4; 15:90.
4. Paravina RD, Majkic G, Stalker JR, Kiat-Amnuay S, Chen JW. Development of a model shade guide for primary teeth. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2008 June;9(2):74-78.
5. Lima DA, Silva AL, Aguiar FH, Liporoni PC, Munin E, Ambrosano GM, et al. In vitro assessment of the effectiveness of whitening dentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stains. Braz Oral Res. 2008 Apr-Jun;22(2):106-11.
6. Kumar A, Kumar V, Singh J, Hooda A, Dutta S. Drug-induced discoloration of teeth: an updated review. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2012 Feb;51(2):181-5.
7. Prathap S, Rajesh H, Boloor VA, Rao AS. Extrinsic stains and management: A new insight. J Acad Indus Res. 2013 Jan;1(8):435-442.
8. ST Manuel, P Abhishek, M Kundabala. Etiology of tooth discoloration- a review. Nig Dent J. 2010;18(2):56-63.
9. Lee BS, Huang SH, Chiang YC, Chien YS, Mou CY, Lin CP. Development of in vitro tooth stai; ning model and usage of catalysts to elevate the ef-fectiveness of tooth bleaching. Dent Mater. 2008 Jan;24(1):57-66.
10. Walsh TF, Rawlinson A, Wildgoose D, Marlow I, Haywood J, Ward JM. Clinical evaluation of the stain removing ability of a whitening dentifrice and stain controlling system. J Dent. 2005 May;33(5):413-8.
11. Loguercio AD, Correia LD, Zago C, Tagliari D, Neumann E, Gomes OM, et al. Clinical effectiveness of two microabrasion materials for the removal of enamel fluorosis stains. Oper Dent. 2007 Nov-Dec;32(6):531-8.
12. Heymann H, Swift EJ, Ritter A. Sturdevant's Art and Science of Operative Dentistry. 6th ed., 2013, Mosby, St Louis: pp:300-2.
13. Nathoo SA, Gaffar A. Studies on Dental Stains Induced by Antibacterial Agents and Rational Approaches for Bleaching Dental Stains. Adv Dent Res. 1995 Dec;9(4):462-70.
14. Honório HM, Rios D, Abdo RC, Machado MA. Ef-fect of different prophylaxis methods on sound and demineralized enamel. J Appl Oral Sci. 2006 Apr;14(2):117-23.
15. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Clini-cal Affairs Committee; American Academy on Pediatric Dentistry Council on Clinical Affairs. Guideline on the role dental prophylaxis in pediatric dentistry. Pediatr Dent. 2008-2009; 30(7 Suppl):119-20.
16. Watts A, Addy M. tooth color discoloration and staining: A review of literature. Br Dent J. 2001 Apr;190(6):309-16.
17. Ghassemi A, Hooper W, Vorwerk L, Domke T, DeSciscio P, Nathoo S. Effectiveness of a new dentifrice with baking soda and peroxide in removing extrinsic stain and whitening teeth. J Clin Dent. 2012;23(3):86-91.
18. Myneni SR. Effect of baking soda in dentifrices on plaque removal. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017 Nov;148(11S):S4-S9.
19. Li Y. Stain removal and whitening by baking soda denti-frice: A review of literature. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017 Nov;148(11S):S20-S26.
20. Silhacek KJ, Taake KR. Sodium bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide: the effect on the growth of Streptococcus mutans. J Dent Hyg. 2005 Fall; 79(4):7.
21. Cerci BB, Roman LS, Guariza-Filho O, Camargo ES, Tanaka OM. Dental enamel roughness with different acid etching times: Atomic force microscopy study. Eur J Gen Dent 2012 Sep;1(3):187-91
22. Joiner A, Hopkinson I, Deng Y, Westland S. A re-view of tooth color and whiteness. J Dent. 2008;36 Suppl 1:S2-7.
23. Wilkins EM. Clinical practice of dental hygienist.12th ed. Philadelphi: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: 2016; 730-42.
24. Macpherson LM, Stephen KW, Joiner A, Schäfer F, Huntington E. Comparison of a conventional and modified tooth stain index. J Clin Periodontal 2000 Nov; 27(11):854-9.
25. Usumez A, Ozturk N, Ozturk B. Two-year color changes of light-cured composites: influence of different light-curing units. Oper Dent. 2005 Sep-Oct;30(5):655-60.
26. Hasegawa A, Motonomi A, Ikeda I, Kawaguchi S. Color of natural tooth crown in Japanese people. Color Res Appl. 2000 Feb; 25(1):43-8.
27. Kim J, Paravina R, Chen JW. In vivo evaluation of color of primary teeth. Pediatr Dent. 2007 Sep-Oct;29(5):383-6.
28. Christofides A, Asante KP, Schauer C, Sharieff W, Owusu-Agyei S, Zlotkin S. Multi-micronutrient sprinkles including a low dose of iron provided as microencapsulated ferrous fumarate im-proves haematologic indices in anaemic chil-dren: a randomized clinical trial. Matern Child Nutr. 2006 Jul;2(3):169-80.
29. Griffin IJ, Cooke RJ, Reid MM, McCormick KP, Smith JS. Iron nutritional status in preterm infants fed formulas fortified with iron. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1999 Jul;81(1):F45-9.
30. Pontefract H, Courtney M, Smith S, Newcombe RG, Addy M. Development of methods to enhance extrinsic tooth discoloration for comparison of toothpastes. 1. Studies in vitro. J Clin Periodontol. 2004 Jan; 31(1):1-6.



XML     Print



Volume 31, Issue 3 (7-2019) Back to browse issues page